SIRS, Sepsis, and Severe Viral Infection
In patients demonstrating common symptoms of severe inflammation, we may face an urgent need to identify the cause of the condition. Sepsis is a life-threatening (multi)organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an exaggerated defense response of the body to a noxious stressor. All sepsis meets SIRS criteria, but not the converse. Besides infection, the SIRS criteria may also be met by other etiologies such as dehydration, trauma, or ischemia. CRP, PCT, presepsin, and clusterin are used to aid sepsis diagnosis and for sepsis prognosis. Distinguishing between bacterial and viral respiratory tract infections (RTI) using the viral infection response protein MxA may be crucial in patients with attenuated or immature immune systems, such as post-surgery patients or newborns and infants.