Acute kidney injury (AKI) develops suddenly and is usually caused by such events as dehydration, blood loss from major surgery or injury, heart failure, or the use of medicines.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious condition usually caused by a long-term disease, such as high blood pressure or diabetes, that slowly damages the kidneys and reduces their function over time. CKD is affecting around 10 % of adults without any clinical symptoms being observed in the early stages.
Kidney malfunction is characterized by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decrease typically diagnosed based on serum creatine concentration. Recently, new biomarkers have been employed to allow the diagnose of AKI and CKD in the early stages and with high sensitivity and specificity.