Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) accounts for about 5 to 10 percent of cases of diabetes. It usually onsets in children or adolescents, but about 20 % of new patients are adults. T1DM is caused by autoimmune destruction of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas and β-cell insulin secretion deterioration. High fasting glucose and decreased insulin levels are primary markers of the onset of diabetes.
Patients suffering from T1DM have autoantibodies to several components of the islets and to insulin itself. The antibodies are often present for several years before the onset of T1DM and are used for the confirmatory and early preclinical stage diagnosis, and to differentiate between T1DM and T2DM. Next markers are glucagon and C-peptide which can be used to estimate residual β-cell function and insulin secretion.