Cancer is the second leading cause of death (about 1 in 6 deaths) in the world. Late-stage presentation, inaccessible early diagnosis, and treatment are still common in some types of cancer. But, thanks to great improvements in cancer screening and treatment, survival rates and even cure rates are improving in cancer patients.
In the cancer diagnosis, a variety of investigations (physical exam, biopsy, imaging tests, and laboratory tests) is used. Laboratory tests, such as urine and blood tests, may help identify abnormalities that can be caused by cancer. Substances that are elevated when cancer is present are referred to as tumor markers. Identification of cancer-causing infections contributes to cancer screening and diagnostics.