Fertility & Endocrinology
Infertility is a global public health issue affecting a significant proportion of humanity. Sex hormones regulate virtually all processes of the human reproductive system. To disclose the biomedical nature of this problem, it is useful to know the circulating levels of them. Male (androgens) and female (estrogens) sex hormones are steroids synthesized in the testes, ovaries, adrenal glands, and during pregnancy, the placenta. The actions of the hormones in various tissues are mediated by androgen or estrogen receptors, their synthesis is regulated by gonadotropins and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Besides their role in reproduction and fertility, androgens and estrogens affect body growth and gender characteristics development, masculinity or fat depositing, and even brain and behavior.